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WHO: What is universal health coverage 什么是全民健康覆盖  

2013-08-19 07:25:58|  分类: 世卫文存 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Q: What is universal health coverage?

The goal of universal health coverage is to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.

For a community or country to achieve universal health coverage, several factors must be in place, including:

  • A strong, efficient, well-run health system that meets priority health needs through people-centred integrated care (including services for HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, noncommunicable diseases, maternal and child health) by:
    • informing and encouraging people to stay healthy and prevent illness;
    • detecting health conditions early;
    • having the capacity to treat disease; and
    • helping patients with rehabilitation.
  • Affordability – a system for financing health services so people do not suffer financial hardship when using them. This can be achieved in a variety of ways.
  • Access to essential medicines and technologies to diagnose and treat medical problems.
  • A sufficient capacity of well-trained, motivated health workers to provide the services to meet patients’ needs based on the best available evidence.

It also requires recognition of the critical role played by all sectors in assuring human health, including transport, education and urban planning.

Universal health coverage has a direct impact on a population’s health. Access to health services enables people to be more productive and active contributors to their families and communities. It also ensures that children can go to school and learn. At the same time, financial risk protection prevents people from being pushed into poverty when they have to pay for health services out of their own pockets. Universal health coverage is thus a critical component of sustainable development and poverty reduction, and a key element of any effort to reduce social inequities. Universal coverage is the hallmark of a government’s commitment to improve the wellbeing of all its citizens.

Universal coverage is firmly based on the WHO constitution of 1948 declaring health a fundamental human right and on the Health for All agenda set by the Alma-Ata declaration in 1978. Equity is paramount. This means that countries need to track progress not just across the national population but within different groups (e.g. by income level, sex, age, place of residence, migrant status and ethnic origin). 


问:什么是全民健康覆盖

全民健康覆盖的目标是确保所有人都获得其所需要的卫生服务,而在付费时不必经历财务困难。

一个社区或国家要实现全民健康覆盖,以下几个因素必不可少:

  • 一个有力、高效、运转良好、能够通过以人为本的综合保健服务(包括为艾滋病毒、结核病、疟疾、非传染性疾病、孕产妇和儿童健康提供的服务)满足重点卫生需求的卫生系统,包括:
    • 为人们提供信息,并鼓励人们保持健康、预防疾病;
    • 及早发现健康方面的状况;
    • 有能力治疗疾病;
    • 帮助患者康复。
  • 可负担性——建立为卫生服务供资的制度,确保人们在利用卫生服务时不经历财务困难。这可以通过多种方式实现。
  • 获得基本药物和技术以便诊断并处理医疗问题。
  • 受到良好培训并积极工作的卫生工作者拥有提供服务并以现有最佳证据为基础满足患者需求的充分能力。

要实现全民健康覆盖,还要承认所有部门对于确保人类健康均发挥着关键作用,包括交通、教育和城市规划部门。

全民健康覆盖对人口健康有直接影响。获得卫生服务使人们能够更具生产力,从而能够积极为家庭和社区做出贡献。它还确保儿童能够到学校上学。同时,针对财务风险的保护措施可以防止人们因为自费支付卫生服务费用而致贫。因此,全民健康覆盖是可持续发展和减贫的关键组成部分,也是减少社会不公平的关键要素。全民覆盖是政府致力于改善其公民福祉的标志。

全民覆盖以宣布健康为基本人权的1948年世卫组织《组织法》和1978年《阿拉木图宣言》所确定的全民健康议程为基础。公平是最重要的。这意味着各国不仅要跟踪整个国家人口的进展情况,而且要在不同的群体内部(例如,按收入水平、性别、年龄、居住地、移民身份和民族等)促进实现公平。

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